Subsea Oil & Gas Development is a complex but standardized process. The purpose of this process is to exploit crude oil and natural gas from a subsea reservoir with the most reliable, safe, and cost-effective solutions. There are two categories of subsea development: shallow-water development and deep-water development.
Shallow-water development for oil field at water depth less than 1,000 ft but deeper than 100 ft. Oil fields at water depths under 100 ft can be considered surface operations because oil production equipment (dry trees) are generally located above the water on a jacket platform.
Deep-water development usually takes place in the middle of the ocean and is not readily accessible, which adds complexity to the system. Deep-water and shallow-water development share similar processes and field structures, however, deep-water development is much more expensive.
A subsea system typically includes following components:
Subsea drilling system
A deepwater drilling system is a system used for drilling for oil and natural gas in deepwater environments. It typically includes a drilling platform, either a floating platform (such as a semi-submersible or a drillship) or a fixed platform, as well as subsea equipment, such as subsea blowout preventers, marine drilling risers, and other specialized equipment. It also includes a control system to manage the drilling process and ensure safety.
Subsea production system
A deepwater production system is a type of oil and gas production system used to extract resources from the deep waters of the ocean. It typically consists of a series of platforms, production risers, pipelines, subsea trees, subsea manifold and wellhead equipment. The system is designed to operate in extreme environments, often thousands of feet below the surface of the ocean. It is used to access large, unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas that would otherwise be inaccessible.
Subsea control system
Subsea control system A subsea control system is an underwater system that operates and controls subsea equipment such as subsea trees and manifolds. These systems are used to control and monitor the operations of oil and gas production wells, pipelines, and pumping stations. Subsea control systems can be used to monitor and control the pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the production fluids and to measure the pressure and temperature of the subsea environment. They can also be used to detect and alert operators to potential safety and environmental hazards. Subsea control systems typically consist of a combination of hardware components such as sensors, valves, pumps, and umbilicals, as well as software components such as real-time data acquisition, data logging, and control systems.
Subsea hydrocarbon transportation system
Subsea hydrocarbon transportation systems are used to move hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas from offshore production facilities to onshore refineries and processing plants. These systems involve the installation of specialized pipelines, pumps, and other infrastructure to facilitate the transportation of hydrocarbons. The pipelines are typically buried beneath the seabed and are designed to withstand the pressure and temperature of the environment. Additionally, subsea pumps are used to pressurize the hydrocarbons and keep them moving through the pipelines. Additionally, subsea valves and other control equipment are used to control and monitor the flow of hydrocarbons. Subsea hydrocarbon transportation systems provide a reliable and efficient method of transporting hydrocarbons from offshore production facilities to onshore refineries and processing plants.